Acknowledgements:

We thank Prof. J.-P. Muller (Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL), Dr. J.-R. Kim and Dr. S.-Y. Lin for their collaborative work on this research. We thank the ESA Mars Express High-Resolution Stereo Camera Team.

The research was supported by the UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC): (grants: ST/F003099; PP/C502630/1; PP/E002366/1; PP/E00217X/1). S. Gupta was supported by a Royal Society-Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship.

Further Reading:

Warner, N.H., Gupta, S., Kim, J., Muller, J. Le Corre, L., Morley, J., Lin, S., McGonigle, C. (2011). Constraints on the origin and evolution of Iani Chaos, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, Planets. 116, E06003, doi:10.1029/2010JE003787.

Warner, N.H., Gupta, S., Kim, J., Lin, S., and Muller, J. (2010). Retreat of a giant cataract in a long-lived (3.7 Ga 2.6 Ga) martian outflow channel. Geology. 38(9), 791-794.

Gupta, Sanjeev; Warner, Nicholas; Kim, Jung-Rack; Lin, Shih-Yuan; Muller, Jan (2010). "Hesperian equatorial thermokarst lakes in Ares Vallis as evidence for transient warm conditions on Mars". Geology 38 (1): 7174. doi:10.1130/G30579.1

Warner, N., Gupta, S., Lin. S., Kim, J., Muller, J.P., and Morley, J. (2010). Late Noachian to Hesperian climate change on Mars: Evidence of episodic warming from transient crater lakes near Ares Vallis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Planets. Doi: 10.1029/2009JE003522.

Warner, N., Gupta, S., Muller, J, Kim, J. and Lin, S. (2009). A refined chronology of catastrophic outflow events in Ares Vallis, Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 288, 58-69.